Albumen (or albumin) is the name for any of several simple, water-soluble proteins that are found in egg white, milk, blood serum, various animal tissues, and many plant juices and tissues.

Amino acids are important molecules which always contain carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, and many in addition carry sulphur. About 500 amino acids are known, among them 22 'protein-building' amino acids, called also 'standard amino acids'.

DNA is DeoxyriboNucleic Acid, a molecule with a twisted double strand which carries genetic information in all living organisms. In humans it is stored in the nucleusof their cells. DNA carries instructions for the development and functioning of cells, including providing the templates for the synthesis of new proteins.

Gene is a molecular unit of heredity of a living organism and is a specific region of DNA that influences a particular characteristic in an organism.

Genome is the complete set of hereditary information of an organism. This information is stored in the form of the extraordinarily long DNA double helix within each cell of the human body, except in the mature red blood cells.

Ribosomes are tiny granules in the cells composed of RNA and protein, which are active in the protein synthesis. They form the chains of amino acids according to the genetic ‘letters’ transmitted by the mRNA. This activity of ribosomes is also called ‘protein translation’.

RNA is RiboNucleic Acid, a molecule with a single strand of genes and smaller in size than DNA. One of its most important roles is the transfer of genetic information from DNA in the form of messenger RNA (mRNA) that serves as instruction for the synthesis of new proteins.

Seitan (also called wheat meat or wheat gluten) is made by washing wheat flour dough with water until all the starch dissolves, leaving insoluble gluten as an elastic mass which is then cooked before being eaten. Seitan is often used instead of meat in Asian, Buddhist, macrobiotic and vegetarian cuisine.

Tofu or bean curd is made by coagulating soy milk and then pressing the resulting curds into soft white blocks. It is part of Asian cuisine, as well as macrobiotic and vegetarian cuisine in the West.